Global challenges of our time are the reduction of CO2 emissions, the reduction of resource consumption and the transformation of our linear material flows into circular economies. The construction industry has a particular role to play here: Firstly, the need for new buildings and infrastructure construction will increase in the coming decades due to the growing populations. Secondly, the design and production of buildings is characterised by a high degree of customisation due to local site conditions.
Industrial series production and CNC-based individualised manufacturing have not become established in architecture because they do not allow the necessary individualisation or are uneconomical. However, the technology of Additive Manufacturing is fundamentally different and enables a paradigm shift in construction, especially in concrete construction. The great advantage of 3D concrete printing is that automation and individualisation do not contradict each other. With 3D concrete printing, material is only built up where it is structurally or functionally required. This means that the amount of material used can be drastically reduced. In this respect, 3D concrete printing is ecological and economical at the same time.
However, the introduction of additive manufacturing techniques in the construction industry does not only require technological developments. It also requires a novel design language that is in line with the technology. We are at the beginning of a new era here. The Collaborative Research Center TRR 277 aims to increase resource efficiency and productivity in construction and pave the way for a new design in architecture and engineering. To this end, research teams are looking for a new logic of form based on sustainable design principles and in particular on the efficient control of the flow of forces. But the integration of other functions (e.g. building technologies) as well as the new freedom of form also direct architectural design.